|Unit 16 Scientists at work
1．application n. [U] [C] 应用，适用；运用
（1）Biology has practical applications.生物学有实用性。
（2）I made an application for a loan. 我申请一笔贷款。
（3）He has applied for a post in England. 他已申请在英国供职。
（4）We should apply both theories in the language teaching.
（5）This rule can not be applied to every case.
（6）The nurse applied the ointment to the wound. 护士把药膏敷到伤口上。
(1）When our parents came to visit our school, Mary conducted them into the classrooms.
(2）They hired agents to conduct their affairs.
(3）Mr. Green will conduct the orchestra.格林先生将指挥这支管弦乐队。(vt.)
(4）Who is conducting this evening? 今天晚上谁指挥？(vi.）
(5）Most metals conduct electricity. 大多数金属能导电。
(6）Many pupils in this class got prizes for good conduct.
(7）His conduct of the business was very successful.
(8）the efficient conduct of state affairs 对国家处理得力
（1）vt.——to ask for money for something收费；要（人）支付（多少钱）
He charged me $50 for mending the watch.他要我付了五十元修表费。
Please charge my account. 请记在我帐上。
（2）vt.——To make a claim of wrongdoing against; accuse or blame指责，控告
He was charged with stealing.他被控犯有偷窃行为。
The statement charged that their actions violated the agreement.
（3）vt.——put power into something 充电
The battery needs to be charged.这电池需要充电了。
（4）vi.——make an attack ; rush攻击；突击；进攻
The whole line charged.全线攻击。
The lion charged at those little animals.狮子向那些小动物冲了过去。
（5）n.——the price asked for something 价格，收费
acclaim of wrongdoing; an accusation 指控；控告
These books are free of charge.这些书是免费的。
He was arrested on the charge of robbery.他因被控犯有抢劫罪而被捕。
4．a great deal of+[U]
sim. an amount of + [U]
cf. a number of +[C]
a lot of /lots of / plenty of/ a quantity of / quantities of +[C]/[U](其中quantities of+名词时谓语动词用复数；a quantity of+名词时谓语动词用单数)。
A great deal of time／money／energy has been spent on the project．
I can think of a number of ways to carry out this plan.
A number of students are staying outside the office.
Quantities of food were on the table.桌上摆了大量食物。
例如：A great many books __________ every year, but only a small quantity of them __________ well.
A. have published; sells B. have been published; sell
C. have been punished; sells D. has been punished; sell
（1）to show that something is true证明，证实
It was proved from another fact.它由另一事实证明。
I'll prove to the world that he was right.我将向世人证明他是对的。
（2）to show oneself to be 表现出
On the long journey he proved himself to be an amusing companion.
（3）to try; test by an experiment 考验；试验
I must prove his honesty.我必须考验他是否诚实。
（4）link-v .——to turn out to be, be found to be证明是；表现是
She proved a very strict teacher.结果证明她是一位严格的老师。
My advice proved (to be) wrong.我的意见证明是错的。
6．tear (tore，torn) vt.撕开，撕裂；扯破，划破；拉掉；撕掉；使精神不安，折磨
（1）She tore the letter into tiny pieces.她把信撕得粉碎。
（2）I tore a page from my notebook.我从笔记本上撕下一页纸来。
（3）He was torn by grief.他悲伤极了。
（4）This material tears easily.这种料子很容易撕破。
（5）She is mending a tear in her dress. 她在缝补连衣裙上的破洞。
（1）choose, select by picking挑选出；拣出
Let me pick out some good ones for you.让我来替你挑几个好的。
At registration I had trouble picking out my courses.
（2）be able to see someone or something in a lot of others辨认出；区别出；看出
It's easy to pick him out in a crowd because he is very tall.
There's such a big crowd that I can't pick Samuel out.
（1）vt.—— not feel sure about something； not believe something怀疑；不信；拿不准
The judge doubted him. 法官怀疑他。
I doubt whether / if Tom has taken my watch.
I do not doubt that he will succeed. 我肯定他会成功。
Do you doubt that it is true ? 你怀疑它是真的吗？
（2）vi. ——not feel sure about something; not believe something怀疑；不信
They doubted of/ about the feasibility of the project.
（3）n.—— not being sure 怀疑；疑惑；疑问
No doubt we shall succeed by ourselves.
I have my doubts about it. 我对此有怀疑。
If there is any doubt, you had better make certain.
The outcome of the election remains in doubt.选举的结果仍然不能肯定。
（1）adj.—— with an edge that cuts easily 锋利的；快的
You must be very careful with this sharp knife.
（2）adj.—— a sharp manner; sudden 陡的，急转的
The driver found the sharp left turn very difficult.
（3）adj.—— that can see, hear, etc. well敏锐的；精明的
He is as sharp as a needle.他非常机敏。
sharp ears and eyes敏锐的耳目
（4）adj.——clear; that you can see or smell clearly清楚的；明显的
The tower stands sharp against the clear sky.
That photograph is not sharp enough.那张照片不够清晰。
（5）adj.——that you hear loudly and suddenly剌耳的；尖锐的
I heard a sharp cry.我听到一声尖叫。
（6） adv.—— in a sharp manner; suddenly尖锐地；突然
The road turns sharp to the right.路突然向右转个弯。
at 10 o'clock sharp 十点正
10．viewn. & v.
Victory is in view.胜利在望。
There's a fine view of the lake from our hotel window.
The Great Wall came into our view.长城出现在我们眼前。
What a wonderful view from your window!
She tried writing out her views.她试着把自己的想法写下来。
He holds strong views on /about race.他对种族问题的观点很鲜明。
They are viewing the map.他们在看地图。
They are viewed as models.他们被看作模范。
The subject may be viewed in various ways.这问题可用不同的方式考虑。
view the problem from all angles全面地考虑问题
11．electric adj. 电的；电气的，电动的，导电的；令人震惊的；极其强烈的
cf. electrical adj. 与（电）学有关的
I got an electric shock from the wire. 我被这根电线电击了一下。
The child likes electric toys. 这孩子喜欢电动玩具。
an electric fan 电扇 an electric heater 电热器
an electric iron电熨斗 an electric lamp 一盏电灯
His speech had an electric effect on the audience.
1．Well, in my opinion, it’s a waste of money. It’s much too expensive.（Speaking）
（1）（a）waste of time +doing… 浪费……
sim. waste time/ money +doing sth.
He is much too difficult, so it’s a waste of time dealing with him.
（2） much too adv. 太……
You are much too kind to me.你对我实在太好了。
It's much too cold. 天气实在太冷了。
You are driving much too fast.你开车太快了。
cf. too much adj. 太多……
①相当于形容词，意为“more than enough”，用在不可数名词前面作定语或在系动词后面作表语。如：
Americans eat too much meat in my opinion. 依我看，美国人吃的肉太多。
I drank too much cola last night.昨天晚上我可乐喝得太多了。
The work is too much for her.这工作她干不了。
She's afraid the trip will be too much for me.
Too much was happening all at once.同时发生的事情太多了。
You have given me too much. 你给我的太多了。
You work too much.你工作干得太多了。
She talks too much.她话说得太多了。
2．In the eighteenth century, Benjamin Franklin conducted a number of experiments in which he showed what electricity is.
do an experiment
make an experiment
perform an experiment
conduct an experiment
carry out an experiment
（2）a number of意为“许多”，相当于many，修饰复数名词。
“a number of+复数名词”用作主语时，谓语动词用复数形式
the number of意为“……的数目”，用作主语时，谓语动词用单数形式。
例如：The number of people invited _______ fifty, but a number of them _______ absent for different reasons.
A．were; was B．was; was
C．was; were D．were; were
3．Having realised that I could use a kite to attract lightning, I decided to do an experiment. 意识到风筝能吸引电流，我决定做一个实验。
having realised是现在分词的完成式，分词短语在句中作状语，表示该动作(realise)发生在句子谓语动词所表示的动作之前，相当于When I had realised that.. 又如：
Having finished his homework，she went on the Internet.
Having finished the homework , they went home happily.
Having lived in Baoan for many years, she knows it quite well.
having done是动词-ing形式的完成式，在句中作状语，它表示的动作先于句子谓语动词已经持续了若干时间或若干次。其否定形式是not having done，即在having前直接加not。
例如：______ in the queue for half an hour, Tom suddenly realized he had left his wallet at home.
A．To wait B．Have waited
C．Having waited D．To have waited
4．This ribbon, which must not get wet, will protect you from the electricity.
Cf. The key tied to the string was put into the door to stop the kite from flying away.
protect...from意为“保护……；使……不受伤害”；stop/prevent...from doing 意为“阻止……”。
例如：People first began to wear hats to _______ themselves from the climate.
A．defend B．protect C．prevent D．hide
5． There is no doubt that 100 years ago animal testing was cruel but today animals in experiments are very well taken care of.毫无疑问，一个世纪以前动物实验非常残酷，而今实验中的动物得到了悉心照顾。
There is no doubt/possibility/chance…等常常引出同位语从句，进一步说明doubt, possibility, chance等中心词的具体内容。
There is no doubt that your life is in danger.
There is no doubt that you'll be warmly welcomed.
例如：_______ is no possibility ______ Bob can win the first prize in the match.
A．There; that B．It; that
C．There; whether D．It; whether
6．Fly the kite when a thunderstorm appears to be coming on.
There seems / appears to be… 似乎有……
It seems/appears (to sb) that/as if…在某人看来(好象)…
Sb appears to do /be doing/ have done 某人似乎要做／正在做／已经做……
Sb appears to be +n. /adj 某人似乎是……
It appears that he will win the prize.
It appears to me that he is right and you are wrong.
He appears to have done that.
It appears to be raining.
seem / look / appear 的用法区别：
It seemed certain that we would win the prize.
He looked pale and his clothes were in a frightful state.
The actress is thirty-five years old, but she appears a lot younger.
例句：Finally they reached a crossroads.最后他们来到了一个十字路口。
Smoking is not allowed during take-off. 飞机起飞时不允许吸烟。
形容词+ v-ing：good-looking; easy-going
例如： He can speak a lot of everyday English.他会说许多日常英语。
名词+动词： brainwash; sleep-walk
副词+动词： outweigh; overcome
例如：We managed to overcome all the difficulties. 我们设法克服了所有困难。
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